Never Mind Life on Distant Planets. What About Distant Moons?

A new study — and a new book — herald a whole new chapter of exoplanet research

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Universal Images Group

A Hubble image of the dust cloud surrounding the star Fomalhaut, with the planet Fomalhaut B indicated

Earthlings have never been terribly sophisticated cosmic tourists. Ask us which worlds we’d like most to visit and our answers are always the same: Mars! Jupiter! Saturn! Neptune! But there’s a shortsightedness in that —  a little like going on a world tour and limiting your stops to London, Paris, Tokyo and New York. They’re fantastic places all, but as any global traveler will tell you, if you really want to learn a culture and grasp its richness, you’ve got to visit the provinces.

The moons are our solar system’s provinces, and there are loads of them — up to 176 (depending on formal classification) circling six planets. Some are little more than giant bits of cosmic rubble, but many of them are much more — dynamic, even violent, and in one case at least, maybe capable of supporting life. What makes many of these satellites special is what’s known as tidal heating — a gravitational squeezing that takes place as the moon orbits its parent planet and is periodically tugged on by its sister moons in nearby orbits. On Jupiter’s Io, this produces explosive volcanoes; on Io’s neighbor Europa, it means a water-ice crust with what may be a global ocean underneath. On Saturn’s Enceladus it means sparkling jets of frosty exhaust, trailing behind the moon like the smoke in a wake of a steamship.

(MORE: Forget Exoplanets: The Hunt for Exomoons Is Heating Up)

Now, scientists are coming to believe that what happens in our solar system may be happening all over the galaxy. A new study just submitted for publication by a pair of astrophysicists at Princeton University suggests that as investigators discover more and more exoplanets — worlds orbiting other stars — they might also discover tidally heated exomoons. This not only dramatically expands the scope of exoplanet research, it also represents a big step forward toward the field’s ultimate goal: finding worlds like our own — mirror Earths — that just might be home to life.

“Mirror Earth” is not just a term of scientific art, it’s also the title of a new book by my colleague Michael D. Lemonick, who has been chronicling the exoplanet hunt for years, as his columns here, here and here suggest. Lemonick begins his book with an improbable scene at the death bed of his father. A professor of physics at Princeton University, the older man had been drifting in and out of consciousness for a week, entirely unable to speak. Yet when the son began a visit with the pro forma question “Dad, what’s going on?” the old professor suddenly answered: “The Earth goes around the sun! That‘s what’s going on!” Lemonick goes on to write:

When my father first told me about the cosmos, astronomers didn’t know about quasars, or black holes, or pulsars. They didn’t know that most of the matter in the universe is not the atoms that make up stars, planets and people, but rather a mysterious, invisible substance known as dark matter. They knew that the universe is expanding but had no idea that the expansion is accelerating, driven by an equally mysterious force known as dark energy. And they didn’t know the answer to perhaps the oldest question of all: Do planets orbit distant stars? Do any of them harbor life? Is the human species alone in the universe?

(PHOTOS: Window on Infinity: Pictures from Space)

That puzzle finally pushed astronomers to act in a big way, and in 2009, NASA launched the Kepler Space Telescope with the singular purpose of looking for exoplanets. In the three years the spacecraft has been aloft, it has succeeded at that job brilliantly, identifying 77 previously unknown worlds and 2,321 candidates still to be confirmed. But searching for exoplanets is not easy. They’re almost always too small and too remote to detect visually. Instead, astronomers must infer their presence either by measuring the wobble in distant stars — a sign that something massive is orbiting them — or, as Kepler does, by looking at the slight dimming in light as a planet passes in front of a star’s facing side.

In the newly released paper, the investigators — Mary Anne Peters and Edwin Turner — wonder if tidally heated exomoons might serve as a sort of beacon to locate the planets they orbit. A pulsing moon may emit heat exceeding 1,000° K (1,303° F, or 727° C). That’s cold by the standards of the parent star — about 0.1% of stellar heat — but hot by comparison to the parent planet. And that may be just enough for the moon to be detected by infrared telescopes — essentially opening a whole new eye on the cosmos.

In some cases, the authors believe, once you’re able to take the infrared temperature of an exoplanet, you may find out it’s not an exoplanet at all. In 2008, the Hubble Space telescope discovered one such world, Fomalhaut B, orbiting a star 25 light years away. Preliminary infrared studies suggested it was a hot object, perhaps a young planet that was only then beginning to settle and cool. But the body’s temperature also falls into the range of what would be expected  from a tidally heated moon. “If such exomoons exist,” the authors  wrote, “it may well be far easier to image an exomoon with surface conditions that allow the existence of liquid water, than it will be to resolve an Earth-like planet.”

(PHOTOS: The Cosmos In Living Color: Michael Benson’s Interstellar Imagery)

Exomoons may not even have to be tidally heated to harbor life. Rather, they could absorb plenty of solar heat if they happened to be orbiting a planet that lies in what’s called the Goldilocks Zone — the not-too-close, not-too-distant region around its parent sun in which liquid water could exist. Most of the exoplanets discovered so far are on a par with Jupiter in terms of mass, which would make a moon the size of Earth a plausible possibility. “If a Jupiter happened to orbit in its star’s Goldilocks Zone,” wrote Lemonick in an earlier post “and if that Jupiter happened to have a moon about the size of Earth — not impossible, surely — then that hypothetical moon might have a chance of harboring life. That’s a lot of ifs, which made talk of so-called exomoons seem like more of a marketing gimmick designed to gin up public interest in exoplanet science than a serious area of research. Not any more, though.”

Certainly, exoplanet research is still in its comparative infancy, with Kepler — the most prodigious of the planet-hunting telescopes — in service for not yet four years. But it’s not too early to say that the discovery of a mirror Earth is far closer than it’s ever been — or that when we do finally find it, it may turn out to be a moon.

PHOTOS: Snapshots of the Heavens: Amazing Astronomy Photos


@ProfAbelMendez Maybe not so distant either eg Europa.if we can't find the money or the will to get there,what chance further afield?


Statements like this, "Now, scientists are coming to believe that what happens in our solar system may be happening all over the galaxy." sadden me to see how slow our 'scientists' are.  

I thought we ended the 'earth centered' thinking with Copernicus.


You would have to be a close-minded individual to think we are the only life that exist.


 "Earthlings have never been terribly sophisticated cosmic tourists. Ask us which worlds we’d like most to visit and our answers are always the same: Mars! Jupiter! Saturn! Neptune! But there’s a shortsightedness in that —  a little like going on a world tour and limiting your stops to London, Paris, Tokyo and New York."

Because until someone actually invents propulsion systems that can get a significant portion of the speed of light, you wouldn't get to another star system until your great grandchildren were senior citizens.

Andres Conde Bosch
Andres Conde Bosch

I think they just watched Prometheus! Just find it already so we can marvel at humanity's grandiosity to find our next promised land before doomsday.  Yet, we stay ignorant about our planet's survival, let people die of hunger, thinking we will get to leave this planet in time.  Certainly most of us will not be leaving this rock to some distant exoplanet, unless we reach some ancient Stargate or something.

briffault scientists are admitting they may not know everything? Wow....I'm shocked.


Look out!  Sauron is watching...


There is one problem with this idea -- a niggling one, to be sure, but observation of the gas giants in the Solar System lends an element of veracity to it: gas giants tend to throw off a hell of a lot of radiation. If you were standing on the surface of Io, for example, Jupiter's radiation would cook you within minutes - far sooner than a volcano would get you. By our standards, an orbiting moon would be most probably uninhabitable.


We could make parasols out of lead to protect us, and then be weary of methane volcanoes, metoers, reflected radiation, and weird chemicals in the atmosphere, no toilet paper, essentially no Costco. I..I think I'd rather stay on Earth.  Thanks.

Jennifer Rodriguez
Jennifer Rodriguez

All I can think is....

There is hope for Ewoks yet! #EndorIsReal


Mike Setchell
Mike Setchell

PeteinOhio.....A little research goes a long way, remember that before you post blindly next time.

Here is a few examples :

2007 U.S. Federal Budget for One Year


of Health and Human Services (Includes Medicare/Medicaid)

$640.7 Billion


Security Administration

$586 Billion


of Defense

$532.8 Billion (+$127 to $160 Billion for Iraq and Afghanistan)


of Education

$89.9 Billion (The states also have high budgets for education. Out of a

$103 Billion California State Budget, $41.3 Billion went to education)


of Labor

$54.5 Billion


of Homeland Security

$41.1 Billion


of Housing and Urban Development

$28.5 Billion


$16.3 Billion

Cant forget these Beauties either:

•  $31

Billion was recently spent on gifts for pets

•  $20.3

Billion a year is currently spent on toys

•  $31

Billion is spent on tobacco products

•  $58

Billion is spent on alcohol

•  $250

Billion is spent on alcohol and tobacco related diseases


Pay attention Pete, we have been.

US Military is approx 18% of US Fed Budget.

NASA is approx 0.01% of US Fed Budget.

Lots more people are employed in the first group rather than the second.

Andres Conde Bosch
Andres Conde Bosch

Lets see when the fish populations begin to collapse, the oil production dwindles and this planet is too hot, or too cold, or too wet or too dry to live in, and only a few get saved, if the Bible really means that literally.


??? ... uh ... I assume you intended to reply to someone other than me.


@PeteinOhio:disqus So you propose taking money away from NASA. Since I started with my online business I earn $62 every 15 minutes. It sounds unbelievable but you wont forgive yourself if you don't check it out...NDOQESB.Tk


I find it funny how writers of these articles write the initial conclusions in ways that seem to imply we should be surprised.

Of course there are other planets orbiting stars, of course they'll have moons, of course there will be geological activity at varying levels on a number of them. Why does this idea seem to come as, or need to be presented in such a surprised fashion?

Hey, did you know that fire on Earth in places you've never been burns just like it does here? Wow ...


That's not the point. Anything that supports the theory is exciting because one single shred of evidence to the contrary and a theory collapses. That's what evolution deniers get wrong, a theory is not an hypothesis. 


 I was writing about the* tone* of the initial conclusion as done by the article author, not its importance.


We only recently have proof, however, which is what's important.  Before, we only had speculation.


Similar to my reply to Trident,  I don't see a need by the article author to make the proof of our speculation seem to come as such a surprise. It makes the scientists/cosmologists sound like a bunch of guys spitballing ideas in a garage over one too many beers, rather than educated professionals spitballing or more importantly researching ideas that are equal to or above the thoughts of us less scientifically inclined folk.


It's amazing to me that scientists are burning tons of money to determine if there are other planets and moons throughout the universe like those in our solar system/galaxy.  Given that there are billions of galaxies and billions of stars in those galaxies (billions X billions = boatloads) and that we are seeing commonalities between stars/types and other galactic objects, it seem like we could save a ton of money by acknowledging that it is highly likely that there are other earths and moons with life.  Let's then take some of that money and put some folks (likely, less expensive) to work. 


Suffice it that I was commenting on how the government redistributes wealth --- let private industry pay for it.  I agree with the comments regarding the technologies, but at this point in time, we need to reprioritize and get our debts reduced.  Lower the spend as well as taxes.  Hold businesses accountable for the tax breaks -- incentivize businesses to hire (not only through tax breaks, but also punitive measures).  The government is terrible at managing money -- let the private sector do it.  It's amazing that there are folks sniping my comments about taking that money (lowering taxes) and putting people to work.  You are probably the same people who voted for Obama and support him, yet probably didn't make a stink when he ended the shuttle missions and started paying commercial entities.  Don't be so narrow or short minded.  And certainly don't wallow in your self-assumed intellectual prowess.


Pete, the discoveries that these scientists are making ACTUALLY DO translate to jobs in the form of technological advancement because the scientific research they are doing by looking at the universe is ultimately transferrable to our everydy life here on earth. For example, the discoveries of how light refracts through different chemicals in space is now used to make the computer you are using faster and capable of more functions than it would be without that technology (a few other examples include water filters, scratch-resistant lenses in your glasses, invisible braces, and improvements in long-distance phone calls). If we want to continue to see the kind of technological innovations that are putting people to work tomorrow, we have to invest in this type of science today.


What's amazing to me is how stupid people like you function. So you propose taking money away from NASA... thus causing job loss... to create more jobs? Wow.

Chris Stolte
Chris Stolte

Using your logic the government should employ everyone. THAT's stupid. Yes, NASA can employ a few people, but at what cost? The Federal government does employ millions, but at what cost? Every tax dollar spent or accumulated dollar of debt (future taxes) means fewer jobs. Wow. It's amazing to me how stupid people like you function. So shortsighted.


There's just a bit of a difference between keeping the present scientists at NASA employed and the government employing a large portion of our population......duh!! BTW, a job is a job, no matter where it occurs.


oh but they're 'government' jobs; we can never have too few of those..., right?


Since you apparently didn't care to use Google, let me help you out, PeteinOhio, with just a few examples of direct benefits of space exploration in general (copied verbatim from"):

Computer Technology

Ground Processing Scheduling System 

3-D Semiconductor Stacking

Structural Analysis 

News Exchange Reader 

Air Quality Monitoring

Advanced keyboard Design 

Database Management System  

Laser Surveying

Aircraft Controls 

Expert System Software 


Advanced Imaging and Design Graphics


Enriched Baby Food 

Water Purification System 

Scratch-Resistant Lenses 

Pool Purification 

Ribbed Swimsuit 

Golf Ball and Composite Golf Club Design 

Portable Coolers/Warmers 

Sports Training 

Athletic Shoes 


Shock-absorbing Helmets 

Home Security Systems 

Smoke Detectors 

Flat Panel Televisions

High-density Batteries 

Trash Compactors 

Food Packaging and Freeze-dried Technology

Sports Bra Design 

Hair Styling Appliances 

Fogless Ski Goggles 

Self-adjusting Sunglasses 

Hang Gliders 

Art Preservation 

Quartz Crystal Timing Equipment 

Environmental and Resource Management


Solar Energy 

Weather Forecasting Aids 

Forest Management 

Sensors for Environmental Control 

Wind Monitor 

Telemetry Systems 

Plant Research 

Fire Resistant Materials 

Radiation Insulation 

Whale Identification 

Environmental Analysis 

Noise Abatement 

Pollution Measuring Devices 

Pollution Control Devices 

Smokestack Monitor 

Radioactive Leak Detector 

Earthquake Prediction System 

Sewage Treatment 

Energy Saving Air Conditioning 

Air Purification 

Health and Medicine

Digital Imaging Breast Biopsy System 

Breast Cancer Detection 

Laser Angioplasty 

Ultrasound Skin Damage  Assessment 

Human Tissue Stimulator 

Coolant Suit 

Programmable Pacemaker 

Ocular Screening 

Automated Urinalysis 

Medical Gas Analyzer 

Voice-controlled Wheelchair 

Arteriosclerosis Detection 

Ultrasound Scanners 

Automatic Insulin Pump 

Portable X-ray Device 

Invisible Braces 

Dental Arch Wire 

Palate Surgery Technology 

Clean Room Apparel 

Implantable Heart Aid 


Bone Analyzer 

Cataract Surgery Tools 

Industrial Productivity/Manufacturing Technology

Magnetic Liquids 

Welding Sensor System 


Magnetic Bearing System 

Plasma Sprayed Engine Lubricant 

Interactive Computer Training 

High-pressure Water Stripping 

Advanced Welding Torch 

Gasoline Vapor Recovery 

Self-locking Fasteners 

Machine Tool Software 

Laser Wire Stripper 

Lubricant Coating Process 

Wireless Communications 

Engine Coatings and Design 

Public Safety

Radiation Hazard Detector 

Emergency Response Robot 

Pen –sized Personal Alarm System 

Lightweight Emergency Rescue Cutters 

Firemen Air Tanks

Personal Storm Warning System

Self-righting Raft 

Doppler Radar

Firefighters’ Radios 

Lead Poison Detection 

Fire Detector 

Flame Detector 

Corrosion Protection Coating 

Protective Clothing 

Robotic Hands 


Studless Winter Tires 

Better Brakes 

Weight-saving Technology 

Improved Aircraft Engines 

Advanced lubricants 

Energy Storage Systems 

New Wing Designs for Jets 

Safer Bridges

Emission Testing 

Airline Wheelchairs 

Electric Car 

Auto Design 

Methane-powered Vehicles 

Wind Shear Prediction

As the author of this list notes, it's nowhere near all-inclusive.


Now, pray tell, which of these technologies should we have forgone..?


Aircraft Design Analysis


- Artificial satellites.



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