Central and South Kalimantan have been poisoned by years of small-scale gold mining. The miners use mercury in their rudimentary smelting process, releasing as much as 1,000 tons of the toxic chemicals into the air each year. Worse, many miners smelt inside their homes, where the mercury vapor is trapped. The metal can also be released into area waterways, where it can accumulate in fish and water. A 2008 study found concentrations of mercury in the Kahayan River in central Kalimantan more than twice Indonesia’s recommended standard. In recent years, however, the Indonesian government has taken steps to limit man-made mercury emissions, working with miners to make their smelting process safer.